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It would be an exaggeration to say that the dust has settled following the UK’s historic referendum on 23rd June. But now that we are several weeks from that extraordinary singularity and things have calmed at least a little, I asked some of the country’s leading composers to give their thoughts on Brexit.
My aim was to canvass opinion from a wide demographic and from those living and working both in the UK and Europe. I was also interested in contributions from the wider musical community. Hence, I include contributions from two festival artistic directors who also chair major arts umbrella organisations. The second of these also kindly supplied comments from affiliated organisations.
Judith Weir, CBE, Master of the Queen's Music
1. If Brexit negotiations do happen, the musical profession must be pro-active and say what is needed. Top of the list should be continued free movement between the EU and UK for music students (in both directions) because that is the foundation of our internationally successful musical scene.
2. The referendum result makes the exit of Scotland from the UK more likely. If that were to take place, what would happen to the BBC, and its generous classical music provision? This is a question that would need asking on both sides of the border.
The freedom to live and work in Europe has allowed me to live happily in France for the last eight years, free from red tape. And I haven’t been alone in that: off the top of my head I could mention many other British composers who have made their homes in Europe: Richard Baker, Naomi Pinnock, Luke Bedford and Rebecca Saunders in Berlin and Stuart MacRae in Paris, for instance. Richard Barrett has lived in both Amsterdam and Berlin. It hasn’t been one-way traffic: Paul Ruders and Matthias Pintscher and other European composers have lived in London.
And we’ve been able to travel freely within Europe without bothering about visas or border controls (except, of course, at the UK border).
If Theresa May makes the position of EU residents in the UK a bargaining chip in her Brexit negotations, the British living in Europe could find their lives becoming difficult.
If I have to move, which country will take me after the United Kingdom has disintegrated? I’m half-Scottish, quarter Welsh and quarter English.
I received an email this morning saying that the main commercial sponsor of a series of concerts (for which I’d written an orchestral piece) ‘has pulled out because of the uncertainly and insecurity with which the vote has left the business world.’ That’s a six figure chunk of sponsorship which has gone up in smoke: sad for me, disastrous for the orchestra.
The success of this country is based on its openness, so the referendum result came as a shock. The future is one which we all will have to share, and leaving the EU feels like a step backwards. I can’t help thinking that the UK has been diminished.
I’m not an expert, but my fear is that when Europe-wide musical collaborations and co-commissions are discussed, we will be sidelined. l am sad that the UK might become less attractive for international students and that future UK students might be deprived of access to 27 EU countries for study and work.
My hope is that some of the extreme inequalities exposed by the referendum outcome will now be addressed.
It’s been a strange sensation, feeling as mortified, embarrassed, and depressed about my adopted country as I often have for my native U.S. The closest parallel is how I and countless other progressive Americans felt when George W Bush was handed the election victory in 2000. Back then I was just starting life in the UK and every conversation I had seemed to be about the election - "how sad for you Americans, how embarrassing!" And now, among my many friends and colleagues who ardently supported the case to Remain, the sense that a massive miscarriage of democracy and justice has just taken place is strikingly similar.
There are also parallels with the rise of Trumpism in America right now. Thanks to the Brexit campaign, the worst has been exposed in British society and we are seeing swathes of people suddenly comfortable with statements and sentiments that are shocking to say the least. Fanned by tabloid lies and panderings to prejudice, a compassionate, internationalist approach to politics seems more out of reach than ever.
But while we worry and brace ourselves for worse and worse, we keep working, making music, making art. It is our best, and perhaps only, real way to resist and defy these events, to keep creating. Keeping going, keeping ideas open, forming collaborations and encouraging other artists: These are acts of defiance against fear and hopelessness.
In the Bush years I was a recent graduate, struggling to find an artistic and professional path. Now, being more established, I find that teaching and mentoring have become an essential part of the goal to resist despair and keep creating. Providing a support and a model to young artists who are just starting out, it makes our community stronger both locally and internationally. Meeting young composers, hearing about their many and different paths to the same calling, sometimes I am just amazed it happens at all. As long as young people keep caring about art, music, and the world, there is still hope.
Colin Matthews, OBE
Leaving Europe will inevitably lead to problems for musicians working here and abroad, and more and more bureaucracy. But that seems pretty insignificant compared to the wider picture, and what really appals me is that a government put in power by 25% of the electorate should have tried to solve its internal divisions by proposing an ill thought through choice which has been irrevocably endorsed by just over a third of the electorate: all on the basis of lies and distortion. Surely the impotence that so many of us feel has to find a voice, not a musical one but a scream of outrage.
Where I live (in Bedford) all you could see in the run up to the referendum were LEAVE posters, so the result didn't come as a shock to me. It makes it no less depressing though. It seems to me we are leaving the EU because a handful of well-educated men (men taught by experts) wanted the top job. I do understand why a lot of people outside London felt so frustrated though, and I can sympathise why many, faced with the barrage of misleading anti-EU, anti-immigrant propaganda that was coming at us every day, voted the way they did (I think it's been a little too easy for my circle of friends to insulate themselves from opposing views: the peril of social media perhaps).
I can't help thinking that Brexit could almost be viewed as a symptom of our society's lessoning respect and appreciation for the arts, although of course it's vastly more complicated than that! The UK Sciences are already suffering, and I can't see why Brexit wouldn't have a similar effect on the arts, even if the sums of money involved aren't so vast, but in recent years it's hardly as if music in schools has been well-supported by the Government. Brexit will probably have very little effect on my composing career, at all or in the short term at least, but that's hardly the point. I'm lucky to have reached a certain point my career where my CV will probably still allow me access to various funding streams, but if this had happened five years ago I'd not feel anywhere near as confident. I think as composers, however, we can continue to create music that speaks to people across borders, continue to look outwards for inspiration and continue to try to introduce new audience to our artform. I can't imagine the economic implications and unknowns that there must be for some of the big arts institutions in the UK at the moment: it makes me shudder. Perhaps all one can do, until things become clearer, is continue to write music that encourages collaboration, dialogue and inclusiveness.
I have spent many years of my life on the Continent and my cultural formation is truly European, having lived in England, Germany, Italy and Switzerland for so many years, having absorbed all these cultures, having been 'moulded' in such cultures. I do feel British and European at the same time.
Britain fully belongs to Europe: we Europeans belong to the same cultural tradition that springs from Greek and Roman civilisations. To deny this would be foolish and ignorant. But it is equally true that the current European Union is not a transparent and democratic institution. Who of us really wants to be ruled by two governments: a national one that is losing its sovereignty year after year and a super-government made by people in Brussels we don't know, who haven’t been elected by us, and who dictate to us what they decide?
I have often experienced the structural heaviness and the corruption of the state-based culture that prevails on the Continent. I have come to terms with the fact that the majority of Continental people do not see this, simply because they do not know, they have never experienced, a different kind of democracy, one that is more liberal and based on the freedom of the individual. In this sense Britain remains, indeed, different to Continental Europe.
I went to an event for Europe in Munich on Saturday because I wanted to get a deeper understanding of the current feeling about Brexit in Europe. I spoke to several people, but no one could understand why Britain has left. One tries to explain why, yet they don't understand or want to understand that there may be another sensitivity for democracy different to theirs. I spoke to other people in Stuttgart, Halle, Berlin, Rome and Perugia, but with the same results. Only a Swedish friend of mine could understand why the majority of British people have decided to leave. As I hinted earlier, the vast majority of Continental people do not understand that the British tradition is simply different to the Continental one, and this split of perception in the European Continent is, indeed, a real problem. Yet, I believe it is a problem that can be solved in a political environment that is truly democratic.
But politics should go hand in hand with the social and the human aspect of life. We Brits must guard against the tendency to think only of ourselves. I do think we all should be more altruistic and less selfish. In this sense we should learn, for example, from more (European?) human values such as friendship, passion, emotional intensity and more importantly, a stronger sense of “sociality”. Similarly, Continental Europeans could have much to learn from our sense of liberty and respect for the individual. If we all made an effort in both directions I am sure we will always find the right solution to any political problem.
Being a British composer who shares her time between London and Berlin, and Barcelona for the coming Semester, no doubt I will be very affected by Brexit. My management is in Berlin and I have ongoing working relationships with many musicians in Europe, therefore I dearly hope that there will be pathways formed in the aftermath to make these relationships still viable, for British musicians working in Europe and vice versa. Aside from the impact Brexit will have on music and the arts, I find it devastating how divided our country is and how narrow-minded people can be, unable to see beyond the little island they live on.
For every freelancer there is always an element of uncertainty. Most accept this as part of the territory, acknowledging the risk but also the freedom such engagement provides. My fear is that the artistic landscape for post-Brexit composers will be one fraught with uncertainty, to a greater extent than anyone can now imagine.
In recent years the Conservative government has not been a champion of music. It should have come as no surprise that as soon as we began hearing the repeated mantras of 'austerity' and 'living within our means' that councils were going to have to start making some difficult decisions. Of course, councils are not going to win approval by shutting front-line services when budgets get slashed. Therefore services relating to the Arts get crushed as soon as cuts have to be made. On top of this we have seen the continuing rhetoric from ministers such as Nicky Morgan, Eduction Secretary, claiming that picking Art subjects hold students back in their career choices.
After the decimation of many areas of the UK under Thatcher, the EU highlighted many places in South Wales (where I am based) for specific poverty grants. These grants sought to redress the imbalance of opportunity, both economic and cultural, within regions such as South Wales. My suspicion is that without our relationship with the EU to counter-balance the lasting effects of such depression, many areas will suffer further hardship. What this means culturally for these regions is that, after a certain time, they will become cultural black spots with organisations and professionals moving to areas where there is better chance of securing work. I can see it becoming increasingly likely that the government will increase the call for further austerity measures, citing Brexit as the reason.
Maybe the investment from the EU wasn't quick enough within areas such as Wales (which head-scratchingly voted Brexit), and Northern England. Maybe the deprivation of those areas was already entrenched enough to make (clearly misleading) calls to save public services, and the idea of a protest vote, an attractive decision. People clearly had the passion to get out there and vote, they just didn't think about the complexity of the problems that would be caused by Brexit within their own region in my opinion.
I am not sure where this leaves us. The next generation of composers and musicians will certainly face much tougher decisions. How can we have faith in a government who has arbitrarily decided that foreign-born professionals must earn over £35,000 or face deportation? Such decisions suggest that post-Brexit Britain will likely be one in which the cultural value of music will simply be understood as its potential to generate income, without the comprehension or understanding of its (ironically cost-effective) societal benefits. I dearly hope I am proved wrong.
Photo: Azzurra Primavera
Errollyn Wallen, MBE
Einstein said: “A large part of our attitude toward things is conditioned by opinions and emotions which we unconsciously absorb as children from our environment. In other words, it is tradition—besides inherited aptitudes and qualities—which makes us what we are. We but rarely reflect how relatively small as compared with the powerful influence of tradition is the influence of our conscious thought upon our conduct and convictions.”
In the three weeks since Brexit we have had a change of Prime Minister and much social upheaval both here and globally.
I worry. What can I do? How can I make sense of these times?
As a musician it is for me to start listening in a different way.
I must pay super close attention to the whispers and cries coming from all quarters.
It is for me to not only witness — but to take action when necessary.
I must stand up. I must speak up. I must act.
I wish we musicians and artists had stood up more strongly for the international
community of which we have always been part.
* Albert Einstein: The Negro Question (1946)
O brave new world, that has such people in't!
This tiny island’s decision to Brexit has caused a pyroclastic shockwave around the globe. It has set in motion a kaleidoscope of butterfly wings that has only started to cause chaos across social, financial and educational sectors. That this damage was done by duplicitous individuals, who cared only for their own advancement, will be seen as a mere bagatelle in comparison to the long-term shift in how we, the people of the UK, are viewed and are able to impact the world at large. That Brexit might even act as a model for others elsewhere in the EU to manipulate nationalistic tendencies saddens and sickens me.
The fortune of this country will change slowly – an emergent property of the many systems now at work – as a Brexit of one sort or another is set in motion; we will see whether partnerships are rescinded or altered to our detriment in the fields of science and education; how access to European grants is diminished or terminated; how a more right-wing government under PM May will now act even as articulates it plans in Labour’s traditional philosophies (Labour's need to practice self-immolation at this time is beyond reason). This United Kingdom may stay intact but the evil that has hatched out and divided the country will take time to truly settle again – and I can only hope it does.
There are groups such as Scientists for Britain who say the breaking of EU shackles and obligations of free movement will free science in the UK, allowing for a time of great innovation and realignment, of greater involvement with the US and in our shared mother tongue.* However I can’t think of any artist who fears Europe and what it stands for, or who seeks to renegotiate our entwined and mutual development and exploration, one that began centuries ago and to our betterment. As a composer and person I fear parochialism, ignorance and un-nuanced ‘conviction’; the awareness of cultures and fluidity of contexts is, I believe, what leads us towards a truly flexible, relevant and dynamic art. Whatever form Brexit eventually takes, the world we now live in – thanks in part to modern modes of information exchange – cannot put the genie of artistic awareness and cooperation back in the bottle. It might make it more difficult to gather consortia from across Europe, but to a certain extent it already is, but we continue to connect anyhow. Therefore, we CAN artistically maintain our fraternité, our networks and shared culture and exchange of influences, and in the process, perhaps, we will allow our politics to rise closer to the surface of our art and so speak more forcefully. Might this even allow our art to connect relevantly to a wider public as well? There has to be benefit in that.
* Howard Morris PhD, DSc(Hon), FRSA, FRS, Professor of Biological Chemistry (now Emeritus) at Imperial College, London since 1980
Bill Bankes-Jones, founder and Artistic Director of Tête à Tête, and Chair of the UK's umbrella body for opera companies, the Opera and Music Theatre Forum:
Brexit came as an absolute body blow to me. It's very hard to separate out emotional and professional reactions.
Like pretty much all of us working in the arts, the idea of leaving Europe felt absolute madness to me at a time of increasingly connected communication, when we should all be trying to work together more and developing wider umbrellas.
I had a feeling this was going to happen though. It's like a horrible working through of the core idea of Richard Hoggart's The Uses Of Literacy, where he sets out his idea that mass literacy will send us plummeting towards a lowest common denominator where this great new asset to society is used by commercial forces to profiteer by bringing out the worst in mankind - viz newspapers like The Sun etc.
Unfortunately, I fear he was right, and continues to be proved to be right as our increasing connectedness just encourages the very free flow of ever more debasing porn and other material, and worse still, allows social networks to somehow encourage great outpourings of bile and viciousness, or at best, short-term and shallow answers to deep and crucial questions.
To some extent, I do think this is why there is a general sense of loss of control around the country - that and the awful economic imbalances between London and the English and Welsh regions. What's heartbreaking is the referendum was seized as an opportunity to lash out against these centralised forces by the electorate, without a proper understanding of the very negative consequences that will accrue to these same voters themselves.
Even more frighteningly, I can't see how this loss of control will ever be overcome. Certainly our politicians and democratic processes are unlikely to be able to return any sense of control, which is very frightening indeed.
But with Theresa May telling us that "Brexit means Brexit", we'll have to knuckle down and make the best of it.
In opera in particular, we are very accustomed to a free flow of artists internationally, and of course with Europe next-door, we are very grateful for the lack of red tape involved in the free flow of the workforce. We also welcome and embrace the kind of partnerships Europe has facilitated and often financed. We will have to hope that these things are not too destabilised.
Oddly, I spent the day of the referendum result in Switzerland, a very European country outside the EU. I guess we have to hope that we will be able to remain that connected, while becoming just as prosperous and remaining as creative as we have always been.
The British Arts Festivals Association, chaired by Presteigne Festival artistic director, George Vass, give their view in a recent press release:
Downgrade of the UK’s cultural credit rating
The UK’s withdrawal from the EU will create restrictive conditions for collaborative creative partnerships. The costs and bureaucracy associated with welcoming international artists to the UK will be increased and our potential access to support for these partnerships will vanish. Should the UK leave the EU the impact on the performing arts will be hugely detrimental. Funding will be lost, partnerships will cease to exist, our specialist higher education institutions will lose students, UK artists will find it more difficult to work in Europe and the UK will lose many visiting artists. We have already seen the UK’s financial credit rating downgraded. Should this imprudent action, prompted by political expediency and irrational fear, be ratified, then we must also prepare for the downgrade of the UK’s cultural credit rating.
Other views from individual organisation members of BAFA:
Lyndon Jones, Artistic Director, Swansea International Music Festival
For Wales, the referendum outcome is grim, and possibly catastrophic. In the short term, substantial amounts of EU funding for agriculture, and for capital projects including schools, hospitals, and roads, will vanish. Therefore the Welsh Government’s remaining funds will be stretched to the limit, and arts funding is very likely to be one of the first casualties of new spending limits.
Further ahead, the possibilities of Scottish and Irish independence might see Wales as a (perhaps unwanted) partner of an internationally isolated England which, faced with its own post-Brexit difficulties and a secure Tory parliamentary majority, might struggle to see the value in generous public funding settlements to a predominantly Labour-voting neighbour.
Martin Dimery, Creative Director, Frome Festival
In some parts of the England, like Somerset, austerity budgets have meant the complete withdrawal of arts funding from local councils, followed then by a removal of funding from the Arts Council, who refuse to be the sole provider in these cases. EU funding for capital projects remains one of the few subsidies still available. We can have no confidence, given central and local government policy to the arts in the regions, that this money will be made available from those sources instead, following "Brexit." In Frome, an EU grant bid of significant proportion to help develop a venue has suddenly gone from looking positive to impossible overnight.
Debbie Liggins, Business Development Director, Orchestra of the Swan
On a practical note, I would add to this the volatility of the financial markets which could affect the value of investment portfolios and thus the amount that Trusts, Foundations and Individual Benefactors are prepared to donate to the Arts; the potential property value instability which could affect rental prices of commercial premises; the value of the pound which could cost festivals more to employ overseas artists; the re-allocation of public funding away from the arts in order to fulfil the promises of the ‘Leave’ campaign; the loss of the British brand as the UK breaks up …
I mentioned before that there is no definitive list of all the premieres available at the BBC Proms on the BBC website. So, after a bit of rummaging around, I present the official CT no-money-back-guarantee BBC Proms premieres calendar. Last year when I did this I noticed an extra benefit of these links, since the BBC put audio (and sometimes video) of the performances at these locations after the event. If that happens again, the guide can also be used, therefore, as a means of catching-up on stuff you’ve missed. Quite useful, really.
24th Magnus Lindberg, Two Episodes, Porto: world premiere
26th Anthony Payne, Of Land, Sea and Sky: world premiere (20 mins)
27th Michael Berkeley, Violin Concerto: world premiere (20 mins)
31st Lera Auerbach, The Infant Minstrel and His Peculiar Menagerie (Symphony No. 3): UK premiere (30 mins)
1st Jörg Widmen, Armonica: UK premiere (14 mins)
4th Reinbert de Leeuw, Der nächtliche Wanderer: UK premiere (54 mins)
5th Helen Grime, Two Eardley Pictures – 1: Catterline in Winter: world premiere (8 mins)
6th Iris ter Schiphorst, Gravitational Waves: London premiere
7th Helen Grime, Two Eardley Pictures (Snow): world premiere (8 mins)
9th Mark Simpson, Israfel: London premiere (12 mins)
10th HK Gruber, Busking: London premiere (30 mins)
11th Malcolm Hayes, Violin Concerto: world premiere (24 mins)
12th Huw Watkins, Cello Concerto: world premiere (25 mins)
14th Charlotte Bray, Falling in the Fire: world premiere (22 mins)
15th Francisco Coll, Four Iberian Miniatures: London premiere (12 mins)
Thomas Adès, Lieux retrouvés: UK premiere of version with orchestra (15 mins)
16th Colin Matthews, Berceuse for Dresden: London premiere (15 mins)
20th Mica Levi, New Work: world premiere
David Sawer, April \ March: world premiere (20 mins)
20th Gérard Grisey, Dérives: UK premiere (13 mins)
21st Piers Hellawell, Wild Flow: world premiere (20 mins)
24th Marlos Nobre, Kabbalah: UK premiere
25th Emily Howard, Torus (Concerto for Orchestra): world premiere (20 mins)
27th Hans Abrahamsen, let me tell you: London premiere (35 mins)
28th Thomas Larcher, Symphony No 2: UK premiere (35 mins)
29th Sally Beamish, Merula perpetua: world premiere (10 mins)
31st Bayan Northcott, Concerto for Orchestra: world premiere
3rd Julian Anderson, Incantesimi: UK premiere (8 mins)
4th Paul Desenne, Hipnosis mariposa: UK premiere (13 mins)
10th Tom Harrold, Raze: world premiere (5 mins)
Just a little over a week left to support the Sounds Like Now crowdfund. You can read all about the proposed new magazine, which will cover contemporary music in Ireland and UK in my interview with its brainchild, here. If the crowdfund fails, then we will lose this great opportunity to have the glossy publication that new music deserves. So please do consider making a donation. There is no risk—your money covers the cost of your initial subscription, and if the crowdfunder fails to reach it target, the money will not be deducted from your credit card or Paypal account.
Choir of St. John’s College Cambridge, Edward Picton-Turbevill (organ), Andrew Nethsingha (conductor). Signum Classics (SIGCD456).
If Jonathan Harvey was always considered to be a modernist, he was certainly one of the most generous-spirited of their number. Many of his works grow out of familiar materials or techniques and he was entirely willing to moderate his style when he saw the need. These qualities are much in evidence in this fine new disk of his church music.
The programme takes a sensibly chronological approach, beginning with I Love the Lord (1977) and ending with The Annunciation (2011). There are also two works for organ: Toccata (1980) for organ and tape and Laus Deo (1969—the only work that does not appear in chronological order).
I Love the Lord draws the listener perfectly into the sound world of Harvey and the English choral tradition with which he was so familiar. It begins with what feels like a simple piece of psalmody; we could almost be listening to the studied exchanges between decani and cantoris at a Sunday morning Eucharist. Harvey quickly subverts this however, as one part of the choir remains tonally rooted and the other is allowed to drift further and further away. The effect is surprising and captivating.
The Evening Canticles that follow are, to my mind, the highlight of the disk, an overwhelming experience and quite simply, one of the boldest and most exciting settings of this text you are likely to hear. In their liturgically substantial 13-minute span Harvey drives his choral forces well beyond the limits of what you would normally expect to hear in an English cathedral. The Magnificat, especially, is not only full of difficult harmonies, angular lines and testing tessituras, there are all also manner of extended vocal effects: ‘whispering, glissandi, aleatoric writing, shouting, pitched speech, percussive effects using repeated consonants.’ The Nunc Dimittis, is more reserved, containing, as Harvey himself described, ‘an extremely human image of an old man nearing death,’ represented musically by a bass solo. Its conclusion (before the doxology), consists of a sublime representation of his final moments as, at the words ‘To be a light to lighten the Gentiles,’ he is gradually surrounded by a rapturous vocal halo.
The Toccata for organ and tape is a reminder of Harvey’s interest in electronic music, not so much as an expressive medium in and of itself, but as a means of extending the expressive possibilities of existing instruments. Come Holy Ghost (1984) and Praise Ye the Lord (1990), provide polar opposites in mood. Come Holy Ghost, for unaccompanied choir, is one of Harvey’s best known works, a sumptuously pictorial set of variations on the plainsong melody Veni Creator Spiritus. Praise Ye the Lord, by contrast, is, as the text suggests, more celebratory. The vocal writing is rather more conventional, though the organ provides a deliciously dissonant Messiaen-esque counterpoint.
This leads to the more substantial Missa Brevis (1995). It contains the typical four movements associated with an Anglican mass setting (i.e. no Credo). The Kyrie is appropriately penitential, with a densely-woven chromatic texture on the words ‘Kyrie Eleison’ contrasted with declamatory statements of ‘Christe Eleison’. The tension between the two is finally, and movingly, mediated by a solo treble. The Gloria, with its much longer text, is also the most ‘telescoped’ but avoids feeling perfunctory by effectively reflecting the tripartite shape of the text: the exhilarating outer sections being contrasted with a penitential middle. There then follows an intensely pictorial Sanctus and an Agnus Dei that draws the whole together by recalling material from the opening Kyrie. The relative brevity of each movement and the more reserved treatment of the vocal forces makes one feel that Harvey had an ear more on liturgical usefulness here than in the Evening Canticles. The result is not so bold, but it is, nevertheless, immensely satisfying.
The Royal Banners Forward Go (2004) for unaccompanied choir takes the form of a procession whose quasi-canonical entries build and then recede. Whilst the shape is, therefore, relatively conventional, there is also a strangeness to this ghostly cortège—the harmonies are empty, the melodies do not always unfold in the way one expects and the final recession leaves a solo treble lingering like a spectre over the proceedings. The organ work that follows, Laus Deo, has a similarly lucid structure. It abruptly contrasts devastating passages on full organ with material that is almost inaudible, the latter seeming, for a moment, to subdue the former. Perhaps the most remarkable thing about this work, however, is that it was written in the space of twelve hours after Harvey dreamed its main material. The speed of composition is reflected in the ecstatic nature of the thematic material. In the quality of writing – which is unimpeachable — it is not.
The final work, The Annunciation (2011), is the most musically straightforward of all the pieces on the disk. Even here, however, the tonal idiom contains twists and surprises that mark it out as more than merely conventional. The simple beauty of the writing is also rendered more moving by the fact that it was written at a time when Harvey was struggling with the final stages of Motor Neurone Disease. Andrew Nethsingha, who conducted the first performance with the choir of St. John’s, describes how he would call the composer after emailing him a recording of the latest rehearsal: ‘Harvey explained how he could no longer hold a pencil or play the piano.’ Just four more works followed the The Annunciation, with Harvey dying in 2012. Nethsingha and the St. John’s College Choir sang this piece at his memorial service.
It is, of course, fitting that the choir of St. John’s, where Harvey himself was an undergraduate, should produce a disk of his choral music. What we have here, though, is more than merely appropriate. It is the marriage of sublime music, insider’s knowledge of how it should be interpreted and the technical nous to pull off that interpretation. On the first of those three, few would disagree. On the second I would point to the illuminating sleeve notes, which are so full of technical understanding, personal insight and anecdote— Nethsingha knew Harvey and certainly knows his music. On the third, Nethsingha shows that he can convert this knowledge into fine interpretation. Everything is well-paced and there are imaginative risks (the frequent use spacial separation, for example) that pay off handsomely. Finally, of course, one must pay tribute to this fine choir. They sing with astonishing maturity and technical assurance in this difficult repertoire. I grew up on a diet of John’s recordings under George Guest and still treasure many of his interpretations. It is clear that that tradition is in safe hands.
One disappointment in this year’s BBC Proms (15th July–10th September) is that there will be no first night premiere. It has been a great advert for the Proms’ commitment to new music to have a commissioned work at the start. It also sets composers an interesting compositional conundrum: how to self-express whilst writing music that is appropriate for the occasion. It’s resulted in some engaging solutions—Gary Carpenter’s theatrical Dadaville last year was a particular delight.
Despite this, there are plenty of new pieces to enjoy throughout the rest of the Proms season. As last year, I will put together a calendar guide to the works of living composers before things kick-off. In the meantime, the best way to find premieres is to look at the complete list of composers. A rummage through those with birthdates only will turn up quite a few first performances. Alternatively, if you are content just to know the main new works for July, have a look at the concerts on 26th, 27th and 31st, with premieres from Anthony Payne, Michael Berkeley and Lera Auerbach respectively.
Highlights at this year’s Cheltenham Festival (1st–17th) include a showcase of music by Sally Beamish on 16th and, on 11th and 12th, the chance to hear works from next-generation composers who have been at work on the festival’s composing scheme. Premieres include: on 8th, works by Neil Luck, Adam de la Cour and Kate Moore; on 9th new pieces from Arlene Sierra and Kathy Hind; and on 10th there are compositions by Kenneth Hesketh and Ed Hughes written to accompany film shorts.
This year’s Festival Aix-en-Provence (30th June—20th July) opera premiere is Kalîla Wa Dimna by Moneim Adwan (1st–16th). Its libretto, in Arabic and French, is inspired by Kalila and Dimna, an 8th century book of animal tales attributed to Ibn al-Muqaffa. On 12th there is also the first performance of Benjamin de la Fuente’s Piece for two string quartets, drums and recorded voice, presented with a number of newly-commissioned works from young composers.
Thomas Adès’s third opera The Exterminating Angel receives its first performance at the Salzburg Festival on 28th, with subsequent performances running into August. The libretto is based upon Luis Buñuel El ángel exterminador, a surreal film that sees a group of protagonists inexplicably unable to leave a room, a metaphor, perhaps, for the way in which we are all trapped in our own heads. The Salzburg Festival itself continues until the end of August. Of particular interest is Salzburg Contemporary, which forms part of the whole. This will be broken into three parts, the first focusing on Cerha and Kurtag (26th July–16th August); the second on Peter Eötvös (30th July–3rd August); the third on more music by Thomas Adès (two concerts: 2nd and 18th August).
Christian Morris talks to Dan Goren, composer and founder of Composers Edition, about his project to launch a new contemporary music magazine in the United Kingdom & Ireland.
You are currently crowdfunding a new project. What is it and how are you going about it?
It is live now on Crowdfunder, at http://www.crowdfunder.co.uk/sounds-like-now. Basically we’re crowdfunding the launch of a brand new magazine, titled Sounds Like Now. It’ll be devoted to contemporary classical music.
Given the broad range of magazines and periodicals on offer today, where do you see this sitting in the market. Who's it for?
It fills a gap that I see in the cultural landscape as far as publications are concerned. We have magazines for straight classical, early music, cathedral music, piano music. But we don't have anything that's about contemporary classical music in its own right. Within the UK and Ireland there is an extraordinary range of creative musicians and composers engaged in creating new music and as contemporary artists they have something to say about contemporary life. I want to create a focal point, a place where this culture can be explored and celebrated by those who are already engaged in it. Also, crucially, I want to open it up to a wider audience who I think are out there by giving them a bit more information, because it is quite a closed thing in my experience.
>> Click here to read the full interview
Some exciting news in the UK and Ireland: a new mainstream magazine devoted entirely to contemporary music. You can take a look at the preview site, here. An interview with its brainchild, Dan Goren, coming soon to CT….
Berlin’s Pierre Boulez Saal has just opened to visitors. It won't be used for concerts for another nine months, but the models of the interior look pretty nice...
Morton Feldman Beckett Material WER 73252
Morton Feldman is not a composer for those in a hurry. His works, especially towards the end of his life, unfold at a glacial pace with much repetition and extensive use of silence. And yet, if you are in the right frame of mind, they can be transporting. I discovered this in 2014 when I experienced a mesmerising performance of his 70-minute For Bunita Marcus at >reinhören in Basel.
The three works on this new disk from WERGO were written from April to July 1976 and grew out of a commission for the opera Neither based on a text by Samuel Beckett. They were meant to be preparatory sketches, though in the end none of the material found its way into the opera. Whilst not composed on the scale of Bunita – they are 17, 19 an 8 minutes each – they do share the a similar spareness of texture. This is apparent in Orchestra, which consists of a gesture here, an idea there, a period of silence then a sudden outburst. Elemental Procedures has a much greater emphasis on melodic writing and accompaniment, with the inclusion of a soprano soloist and choir. The result is a little more sumptuous, but only a little. Routine Investigations is more pared down still, being for only six instruments. Though it’s brittle argument takes place over a much shorter span, the pace of development remains slow.
If you are unfamiliar with Feldman I would hesitate to recommend this disk as a starting point. Even though it is longer, the densely interwoven textures of his final orchestra work, Coptic Light (1986), are more immediately compelling. For those with a little more familiarity, they make a good stepping-stone to his most epic pieces such as For Philip Guston and String Quartet II (each lasting over three hours). As in all Feldman you will need to be in the zone to appreciate the slow rate of change. They are like the test cricket of classical music – the action is spaced-out, apparently inconsequential. To the newcomer it is baffling; to those in the know, compelling.
Marina Khorkova klangNarbe WER 64182
Even though I haven’t been able to get hold of a copy yet, I also urge you to seek out a debut double-disk set by Russian composer Marina Khorkova, also on WERGO. I had the pleasure of meeting Marina in Switzerland a couple of years ago. She sat me down with an excellent pair of headphones and picked out a few of her pieces to listen to. I was immensely impressed by what I heard, especially her ability to think of ways of eliciting new sounds from traditional instruments. Good examples of this are her Installationen I and Installationen II for organ (2012), still available at her Soundcloud page. For these pieces she spent weeks working on one instrument, experimenting with unusual combinations and settings (for example using stops pulled out by 1/3, 2,3 or full). The results, especially in Installationen II, are compelling. You can learn more about Marina’s work in an interview she did for CT shortly after our meeting.
Other recent releases
For fear of toadying, I refuse to review the disk Gumboots on Signum Classics by CT’s very own David Bruce. I will tentatively say, however, that I found it most enjoyable… Go and listen for yourself – it’s available for digital download and streaming on Spotify and Apple Music.
Aside from the Khorhova and Feldman there are three other new disks out on Wergo. Improvisation Ajountée contains works for organ by Maurice Kagel; there is a new recording of Pēteris Vasks’ String Quartets 1, 3 and 4 played by Spīķeru String Quartet; and first recordings of chamber works by Balz Truempy. NMC have just released Colin Matthews’ violin and cello concertos and a collection of chamber music by Mark Simpson. They are also continuing their Sinfonietta Shorts project with Francisco Coll’s Hyperlude IV and Matt Rogers’ Orac. On Divine Art there are two very different collections of song setting: one by Philip Wood, the other by Michael Finnissy. Both are available for streaming. There is also a collection of choral music by Lydia Kakabadse and a programme of Miniaturised Concertos by a selection of contemporary composers. On Naxos, finally, are recordings of choral music by John Rutter, Randall Thompson’s Requiem, Xia Guan’s Symphony No. 2 and a selection of orchestral music by a man better known for his writing, Anthony Burgess.
View playlists of this month’s releases
To see a selection of this months new releases, take a look at my playlists at Apple Music or Spotify (whichever you prefer). The Spotify playlist is collaborative, in case you'd like to add to it.
The New York Times described the inaugural NY Philharmonic Biennial as ‘Perhaps the most ambitious and extensive contemporary-music festival yet overseen by an American orchestra.’ The 27 events in the second edition (23rd May–11th June) encompass a festival within a festival–the New York City Electroacoustic Festival, a series of programmes that centre around the music of Ligeti, a number of regional and world premieres (though a new work from Esa-Pekka Salonen, originally scheduled for the last night, appears to have been dropped) and concerts dedicated to young and emerging composers. I would also highlight the first U.S. staging of Gerald Barry’s The Importance of Being Earnest, a superb work that won many plaudits during its first run and recent revival in the UK.
The centrepiece of the 2016 Aldeburgh Festival (10th–26th, Aldeburgh, UK) is a journey through Messiaen’s Catalogue d’oiseaux, his 13-movement work for piano based on birdsong. On 17th there are twelve events dedicated to it, including outdoor performances at sunrise and sunset, talks and films. Many have already sold out, though the organisers are promising that more tickets will be available soon. Even if not, it’s still worth pitching up–there will be a free audio relay of the concerts and several events don’t require tickets. Other things to look forward to include works by the festival’s three featured composers, Julian Anderson, Benedict Mason and Rebecca Saunders, as well as new pieces inspired by the First World War. The music of the festival’s founder, Benjamin Britten, will this year be juxtaposed with that of his contemporary Michael Tippett.
It may be the first St. Magnus Festival (16–26th, Orkney, UK) without Max, but there is still a world premiere to look forward to. On 20th there will be the first performance of his Wendy’s Wedding Music at Sanday Community School, written to celebrate the marriage of its headteacher. The music of the festival founder can also be heard in seven other concerts, all viewable here. There are also new works from John Gourlay, Jennifer Martin, Sheena Phillips, Andra Patterson and Mogens Christensen as well as 10 short premieres for solo cello on 25th. Elsewhere there is plenty of music by living composers and, don’t forget, the festival offers a wide range of other categories for the culturally-minded, including literature and theatre; folk, jazz and world music; films; and community events.
The Holland Festival (4th–26th, Amsterdam) has a similar spread of cultural events and also a good deal of new music. Perhaps the highlight is The Transmigration of Morton F. on 20th. Devised by director Sjaron Minailo and composer Anat Spiegel, it promises to be a surreal blend of opera, ritual and computer-gaming. On 23rd the Kronos Quartet give the world premieres of Yannis Kyriakides’ The Lost Border Dances and a new work by Merlijn Twaalfhoven. There are also a number of Dutch premieres, including Birtwistle’s The Cure and The Corridor on 9th and 10th, as well as the chance to see one of the twentieth century’s greatest operas Wozzeck on the opening day.
Other forthcoming premieres…
Another Maxwell Davies world premiere, his children’s opera The Hogboon, takes place at the Barbican under Sir Simon Rattle on 26th June. Also in London, on the 1st the London Sinfonietta present new works from Tom Coult and Harrison Birtwistle together with a pair of regional premieres, whilst on 19th the chamber ensembles from the LSO will, as part of their Soundhub scheme, present new works from next generation composers Yasmeen Ahmed, Ben Gaunt, Oliver Leith and Lee Westwood. At Hoddinott Hall in Cardiff, finally, BBCNOW give the world premiere of John Pickard’s Symphony No. 5 on 7th.
Valery Gergiev and the Mariinsky Opera Orchestra gave a concert at Palmyra yesterday. The recapture of the ancients ruins by Russian-backed troops was one of the few pieces of good news to come out of Syria recently.
As I’ve written elsewhere, music has always been a target of Daesh (also known as IS), so a concert at Palmyra could have been a wonderful opportunity for bridge-building and reconciliation. Sadly the musicians and most of the audience were Russian, the solo cellist was Sergei Roldugin, a close friend of Putin (and who, in the Panama Papers, was recently revealed to possess many millions in offshore holdings) and the Russian President himself appeared via video link from Moscow to hail the operation to liberate Palmyra. Even Gergiev, a conductor who would anyway do better to spread himself less thinly, is a vocal supporter of Putin. The concert therefore became nothing more than a PR exercise, with music as sadly mistreated by those who allow it as by those who would suppress it.
Apple Music Redesign
It has just been leaked that Apple Music will be getting a redesign, with full details being revealed at an Apple Keynote at WWDC on June 13th. I reviewed the new service in July 2015, comparing its catalogue and system for organising tracks favourably with Spotify. I still think that, for collectors, Apple Music, with its superior organisational tools, is a great option. The criticisms of its interface are, however, justified. The ridiculous search bar, where you are invited to look in either your own library or Apple music, is a constant frustration. Often I can’t find what I’m looking for because I’m inadvertently looking in the wrong place. Whenever I need something quickly I always fire up Spotify.
At least on mobile devices things work relatively smoothly. In iTunes on a computer the experience is much less peachy. There are recent horror stories of it deleting users’ music libraries (though read this rebuttal) and the program certainly does too much: it hosts the iTunes store, device syncronisation, videos, podcasts, audio books, users’ music libraries and Apple Music. It is a bewildering experience, even once you are used to it. Unsurprisingly, given its baroque complexity, neither does it work very reliably. Often I click on a track or search for something obvious and nothing happens. It’s time Apple did what it does on iOS – divide iTunes so that each part has its own app: videos, podcasts, iTunes Store, Apple Music.
This is a Voice (Wellcome Collection, London, 14th April–31st July)
I missed this fantastic-looking exhibition when doing my events roundups in March and April but, thankfully, there’s still plenty of time to pay a visit. As the name of the show suggests, the exhibition examines the human voice in a kind of ‘acoustic journey’ with ‘works by artists and vocalists, punctuated by paintings, manuscripts, medical illustrations and ethnographic objects.’ To get a more detailed flavour of the exhibits you can peruse the Gallery Guide.
One of the most intriguing exhibits, Matthew Herbert’s ‘Chorus’, was featured on BBC Radio 3’s In Tune (see the podcast from 14th April). It is a recording booth in which visitors are invited to sing a single note, which is then added to an ever-growing chorus. The effect is compelling and not a little unnerving, rather in the manner of Ligetian micropolyphony. There is also an online version which, if you can’t make the exhibition, I thoroughly recommend. It allows you to isolate voices by the week in which they were recorded and by seemingly random options such as ‘outside temperature’ and ‘local traffic disruptions when the voices were recorded.’ It’s a lot of fun.
And on BBC iPlayer…
If, like me, you missed the BBCSO Dutilleux Total Immersion Day you can catch up with the final concert on BBC iPlayer. It features a good cross-section of his output: his transitional Symphony No.1; Métaboles, which marked the emergence of the composer’s mature style; the sublime cello concerto Tout un monde lointain…, originally written for Rostropovich; and Dutilleux’s moving response to the the suffering of the Jews during the War, The Shadows of Time. The recording is available until the end of this month.
York Spring Festival (4th–8th)
The seven concerts form part of the YorkConcerts series. There is a good array of new music on offer, from works written by students to more established composers. The highlight, perhaps, is a concert celebrating the 70th birthday of Michael Finnissy on 7th. In it pianist Ian Pace will play works by Percy Grainger, Steve Crowther, Beethoven and Lawrence Crane. There will also be new works by Andrew Toovey, Luke Stoneham and Finnissy himself. There is a pre-concert talk with the composer at 6.45.
Vale of Glamorgan Festival (10th–20th)
The festival concentrates entirely on the music of living composers. This year there is a special emphasis on the music of John Metcalf and Pēteris Vasks, both 70 this year, and Steve Reich, who is 80 in October. There will be three chamber works by Metcalf on 18th and Vasks’ substantial Piano Quartet; the BBC National Orchestra of Wales concert on 20th will feature the world premiere of Vasks’ Viola Concerto; and three concerts, on 11th, 14th and 18th, will feature the music of Reich. Other composers represented include Parmela Attariwala, Ēriks Ešenvalds, Magnus Lindberg, Per Nørgård, Arvo Pärt, Krzysztof Penderecki, Guto Puw, Bent Sørensen, Andrew Staniland, Hilary Tann and John Tavener. The complete list, together with links to the concert in which their works feature can be viewed here.
Prague Spring Music Festival (12th–June 3rd)
The events actually start on 7th with a concert from the winner of the Chopin Piano Competition 2015 and competitions for trumpet and piano soloists. The main festival gets going on 12th. Very recently written music is a little thin on the ground, but there are twentieth century works from the likes of Bernstein, Stravinsky, Berg, Lutosławski and Gorecki. There is also the chance to hear the Czech premiere of Colin Matthews’ Traces Remain on 26th and Pēteris Vasks’ Little Summer Music on 1st June.
Norfolk & Norwich Festival (13th–29th)
This festival includes theatre, art and literature as well as music. All of the classical events are listed here. Two events worth making a special trip for are the world premiere of Cain, a new choral work by Kemal Yusuf; and a concert dedicated to the music of Max Richter, consisting of his The Blue Notebooks and selections from Sleep (the original of which is designed to be sleep through over 8 hours – an experience I tried, with somewhat disturbing results).
English Music Festival (26th–30th)
The festival focuses entirely on English music from the Renaissance to the present day. There are two premieres of works that are newly discovered or have otherwise been overlooked: Percy Sherwood’s Concerto for Violin and Cello and Vaughan Williams’ Fat Knight. Works by living composers include Paul Lewis’s An Optimistic Overture; David Matthew’s Norfolk March; Daniel Gillingwater’s Overture, Ad Fontem; and Paul Carr’s Violin Concerto.
Christian Morris talks to Jack Sheen, composer, conductor and co-founder of the ddmmyy concert series.
How did you come to found the ddmmyy series?
I wasn't actually involved in the first ddmmyy show, 090212. That was ran by Tom Rose and Laurie Tompkins - who now direct the Slip imprint together - when I was in my first year at music college in Manchester. They were in second and third year respectively. I came onboard for the second gig, 250512, to conduct and gradually became more involved along with other composers. It's now just myself and Tom.
Those early days of ddmmyy back in 2012 really set the tone for how the series continues to operate. It's still a bunch of mates writing music, talking about music together, introducing each other to music, and then somehow amalgamating all of this into a bespoke event. It's still about presenting new music alongside pieces that we love and feel contextualise each other nicely, except this 'group of mates' has vastly expanded since 2012.
I know that sounds quite corny but it's really how I feel about it all! I've never worked with anyone in ddmmyy that I haven't gotten along with and felt like I've struck up a personal relationship with in the process of commissioning or performing their music. A love of people and the music they make. I just hope that can continue really.
>>Click here to read the rest of the interview
The music of Czech composer Martin Smolka was unfamiliar to me until I came across this new disk of his choral works on Wergo. The programme contains his Poema De Balcones; Walden, The Distiller of Celestial Dews and Słone i smutne. The works are written for large choral forces, the clustered textures occasionally recalling the avant-garde techniques of the 60s. What sets these pieces – the first two in particular – apart, however, is that, though clearly aware of their antecedents, they wear this knowledge lightly.
Poema De Balcones takes a few elliptical lines by Frederico Garcia Lorca (el mar baila por la playa/ un poema de balcones/ retumba el agua), reimagining them in sound. Though the text becomes lost, the composer treating it very freely, its essence is translated into a brilliantly persuasive sound picture. There is naivety in its pictorial directness, though this is also part of its charm–clustered crescendoing chords seem to depict the languid sea, the whistling of the choir the birds overhead. The style is harmonically rich, though at all times chords are chosen to preserve a sense of consonance. The gradual pace of change suggests a work designed to be wallowed in, but there is also a clear sense of direction: the overlapping crescendoing chords become more instant before leading to a central stasis finally followed by both a continuation and development of the opening ideas. The effect is magical.
Each of the five movements of Walden, the Distiller of Celestial Dews sets an excerpt from Thoreau's Walden; or Life in the Woods, a book that describes living simply in natural surroundings. Like the first work on the disk, the texts are treated quite freely, Smolka picking small sections of text to concentrate upon. Only in the anguished (and often detuned) homophony of the third movement Indians, is it set almost as it appears on the page. As in Poema De Balcones much of the writing is pictorial, most strikingly in the second movement Lake, where the the serene surface (‘smooth as glass’ sung repeatedly) is disturbed by little scraps of other material, almost as if a pebble were being thrown in the water. The harmony retains the kind of clustered consonance present in Poema (albeit a little stretched in the aforementioned third movement), though Smolka isn’t above a nice simple melody, such as the repeating unison ideas that begin the first and last movement. There is also a delicious hypnotic phrase in the fourth movement on the words ‘cinquefoil, blackberries’, which is alternated with a syncopated passage that suggests a fondness for jazz.
It’s not exactly more of the same in the last work on the disk, an eighteen-minute setting of Polish poet Tadeusz Różewicz’s Słone i smutne. The texts, once again, are treated very freely, and many of the stylistic fingerprints of the other works are here. They are, however, dialled up a little. The structure is improvisatory and, as such, harder to discern; the clustered harmony tends to emphasise the dissonant, melodic lines are more angular. That the composer took a more instinctive approach is revealed in his observation: ‘If you analyse it then you can find short melodic fragments, cluster-like sounds and many repetitions of short passages. I knew this was just what I had to write, I don’t know why.’ The result is certainly more challenging, but the quality and variety of the ideas keeps the listener engaged.
In his Manifesto of a Re-tuned Composer Smolka remarked ‘Please, no more musical revolutions. [...] Please, no more new music, but rather strange music.’ If I had to sum up Smolka’s style without being technical, I’d say he makes the strange accessible and the accessible strange. In my opinion this is the hardest compositional line of all to walk; to be challenging is not so difficult, playing to the gallery not so hard either. In this beguiling disk Smolka pulls off the rare trick of managing to do both.
Poema de Balcones is available on Spotify and Apple Music.
Open Up Music. Image credit: Sarah Bentley.
There is something poignant about a world premiere of a composer who is no longer with us. Such is the case with the first performance of Peter Maxwell Davies’s Piano Sonata No. 2, which will be played by Rolf Hind at Wigmore Hall on 27th April. It is testament to Maxwell Davies’s strength that the flow of new works appears to have continued to the end – we also have his new children’s opera The Hogboon to look forward to on 26th June.
On 16th at Bristol Cathedral the University of West of England Singers, Lydbrook Band and members of the South-West Open Youth Orchestra conducted by Ian Holmes will give the first performance of a new version of Liz Lane’s Silver Rose. This is an especially important event since the work has been adapted to allow the participation of the disabled-led South-West Open Youth Orchestra. The instruments for this orchestra are adapted to the needs of individual musicians by the organisation Open Up Music. Not only does this allow much greater participation, but has the potential to open up new creative possibilities for composers. Lane, who is heavily involved in the creation of new repertoire for the orchestra told me recently that, as well as adapting standard instruments, the technical team is working on the development of a new musical instrument for the National Open Youth Orchestra planned for 2018/19. She admits it is ‘early days yet’, but has promised to keep us informed. In the meantime, do take the opportunity to hear the first steps in this excellent initiative.
Dutilleux’s 100th birthday celebrations continue this month with a BBCSO Total Immersion event at the Barbican on 30th April. It begins with an introduction to the composer by musicologist Caroline Potter, followed by a lesser-known work: a screening of the 1952 film L’amour d’une femme, for which Dutilleux provided the soundtrack. At 5pm Guildhall musicians concentrate on the composer’s chamber works, including his seminal string quartet Ainsi la nuit. Another talk by Caroline Potter follows at 6.30pm, acting as an introduction to a concert at 7.30pm with BBCSO consisting of Symphony No.1, Tout un monde lointain, The Shadows of Time and Métaboles.
The Budapest Spring Festival (8th–24th) has a number of events which will be of interest to lovers of new music. On 13th the Budapest Festival Orchestra will play John Adams’ Harmonielehre alongside works by Liszt and Bartók; on the same day there will be performances of new works by Steven Mackey and Uri Caine; the King’s Singers perform works by Morley, Reger, Ligeti, Bartók, Biebl, Kodály and Bob Chilcott on 19th; and on 22nd the will be the premiere of László Dubrovay’s ballet Faust, the Damned as well as Light from the Outside World by crossover DJ Jeff Mills. The Wittener Tage Für Neue Kammermusik (Witten Days for New Chamber Music), meanwhile, runs from 22nd–24th in Witten, Germany. There are a total of 20 world premieres and works first commissioned by Westdeutscher Rundfunk (WDR). The complete programme can be viewed here.
There are four opportunities to hear works by emerging composers. At IRCAM, Paris on 15th composers from the Cursus 1 programme (composition and computer music training) present their new works for solo instrument and electronics. On 24th there are two celebrations of the 400th anniversary of Shakespeare’s death: at Bridgewater Hall, Manchester, five composers will have works performed by the BBC Philharmonic; whilst at Peninsula Arts Plymouth University students will present their new songs alongside works by Clive Jenkins, Roxana Panufnik and Gerald Finzie. On 27th at Hoddinott Hall, Cardiff, finally, the BBCNOW Composition: Wales – Open Workshop presents works by Welsh composers worthy of wider exposure.
Other world premieres to look forward to this month include: in the Tenri Cultural Institute, NYC on 2nd, Scott Wheeler’s Ben Gunn, presented alongside works by Virgil Thomson and Judith Weir; on 3rd in The Coronet Theatre, London a new work by George Lewis for solo guitar and ensemble; also on 3rd Nathan Theodoulou’s Jazz Concerto Grosso; and Franck Krawczyk’s Après receives its first performance by the NWP on 26th at the David Geffen Hall, NYC.
Regional premieres include the first US performances of Invisible Door for harpsichord and violin by Hyo-shin Na in San Francisco on 3rd; and Chaya Czernowin’s Hidden in Boston on 29th. In the UK, meanwhile, there are first performance of works by Hans Abrahamsen: Ten Studies at Wigmore Hall on 27th (in the same concert as the Maxwell Davies world premiere, above) and Concerto for the Left Hand at Birmingham Symphony Hall on 28th.
Some additional concerts, including two world premieres, that I missed in my original roundup. For additional information, see CT's concert listings:
Berg/Hesketh Die letzten Augenblicken der Lulu - A 'Lulu' Redaction *World Premiere* | 31 March 2016 | Sarah Gabriel, soprano, Françoise-Green Piano Duo | St John's Smith Square, London
Hände: Das Leben und die Liebe eines Zärtlichen Geschlechts - for piano with film | Clare Hammond, piano | 7 April 2016 | Woodend Barn, Aberdeen for Sound Festival, Scotland
Hände: Das Leben und die Liebe eines Zärtlichen Geschlechts - for piano with film *London Premiere* | Clare Hammond, piano | 9 April 2016 | Kings Place (Hall 2), London
In Ictu Oculi (Three Meditations) for Wind orchestra *World Premiere* | National Youth Wind Ensemble, Phillip Scott, conductor | Royal College of Music | 9 April 2016
Sir Peter Maxwell Davies was one of a handful of composers truly to have dominated British cultural life, also winning a worldwide reputation with his substantial body of work. Sometimes called by his full name, sometimes Maxwell Davies or Sir Peter, he was just as often known affectionately by fellow musicians as Max.
His life can seem contradictory. He was the enfant terrible who wrote educational works for children; the ardent republican that liked the Queen; a pervasive cultural figure who lived in remote Orkney. In many respects one could say that he trod the typical artistic path—the outsider who was eventually absorbed into the establishment. It would be fair to say, however, that his assimilation did not dull his radical roots or his ability to stand up for what he thought was right. This was apparent when in 1993 the Arts Council proposed to remove funding from two London Orchestras. He threatened to renounce his knighthood and quit the country.
His ability to adapt his style to a compositional brief, writing educational works for children and other light pieces such as Farewell to Stromness (which made him one of the few contemporary composers represented in the Classic FM Hall of Fame), puts him in the tradition of community-rooted British composers such as Benjamin Britten or the present Master of the Queen’s Music, Judith Weir.
This image stands in apparent contrast with the radical composer that emerged in the 1960s, the heir-apparent to such figures as Ligeti, Lutosławski, Berio and Xenakis. During that time he wrote a number of technically challenging and provocatively political or anti-religious works that earned him the reputation as a being ‘difficult’. First Fantasia on an In Nomine of John Taverner (1962), for example, had to be conducted by the composer at the BBC Proms because Sir Malcom Sargent found it too demanding, whilst the first performances of Eight Songs for a Mad King and Worldes Bliss (both 1969) provoked catcalls and, in the case of the latter, an audience walk-out. His compositional range and ability to adapt a variety styles to his own ends was, in fact, always an intrinsic part of his musical personality.
Following his studies in Manchester, where he became associated with composers Harrison Birtwistle and Alexander Goehr, pianist John Ogden and trumpeter and conductor Elgar Howarth, Maxwell Davies became a teacher at Cirencester Grammar School in 1959, composing works such as O Magnum Mysterium and the Five Klee Pictures, for the pupils there. This interest in composing for amateurs remained with him for the rest of his life. It would manifest itself in works written specifically for children, such as the music-theatre works from 1989–91; in collaboration with them, as in the Strathclyde Concertos; or in his ability otherwise to moderate his style to accommodate an audience, as in An Orkney Wedding, with Sunrise (1985).
This is not, of course, to undermine the significant and serious contribution Maxwell Davies made to almost every form of contemporary classical music. The foundation of his style was laid in the 50s and 60s. In his earliest acknowledged work, the Trumpet Sonata Op.1 (1955), he experimented with strict forms of serialism. Though his approach subsequently loosened, there always remained a strong tendency towards numerical compositional pre-planning, most obviously in his use of magic squares. At the same time strong modal/tonal elements endured, though the extent to which they operated in the foreground tended to be in proportion to the commission in hand. He used found material, especially from Renaissance composers, for example in his Alma redemptoris mater (1957), also adopting the techniques of the period to his own ends, as in Prolation (1958) where, he observed, they are ‘carried to manic extremes.’ Twentieth-century popular forms also appear, sometimes giving the impression of polystylism. Obvious examples being his use of foxtrots in St Thomas Wake (1969) and Missa Super L’Homme Armé (1971), in both cases allowing him simultaneously to tweak the nose of religion, a favourite target.
Davies’s first opera, Taverner (1962–8), took as it theme the life of the English Renaissance composer, also using his In Nomine theme as a compositional motive. This melody was to recur in many other works, including his chamber opera The Martyrdom of St. Magnus (1976). His other operas include The Doctor of Myddfai (1996), Resurrection (first begun 1963 but not finished until 1987) and The Lighthouse (1980). This last opera, a claustrophobic psychological drama based upon a true story, is probably also his best-known.
Davies’s move to Orkney in the 1970s coincided with a relaxation in his style. In a sign of his increased separation from the European avant garde it also led to a preoccupation with traditional symphonic music. The most substantial contributions were his 10 symphonies, the first in 1976, the last completed as he received treatment for leukaemia in 2014. There were also ten Strathclyde Concertos written for the Scottish Chamber Orchestra, concertos for violin, piano, trumpet and horn and three concert overtures. Between 2002–7 he wrote 10 string quartets, commissioned by Klaus Heymann of Naxos Records.
In 1977 Maxwell Davies founded the St. Magnus Festival, remaining artistic director until 1986. As well as premiering many new works it remains heavily involved in outreach and educational work, most significantly in its composition course, now among the UK’s most important pilgrimages for ambitious composers.
Maxwell Davies received many honours during his lifetime. He was appointed a CBE in 1981, knighted in 1987 and was awarded the Companion of Honour in 2014. In 2004 he was also appointed, for a ten-year tenure, Master of the Queen’s Music. He received the Royal Philharmonic Society Gold Medal in February 2016.
Peter Maxwell Davies's Second Piano Sonata will be premiered on 27th April; his children’s opera, The Hogboon, on 26th June.
In my teens I spent many a happy hour digging around in the Welsh Music Information Centre, a repository for scores and recordings of mostly recently written music from the principality. It proved a useful introduction to some of the most important names in Welsh music and in one case – the music of William Mathias – inspired a lifelong passion.
On one visit to the WMIC I remember its Director A.J. Heward Rees digging out a recording of the 1971 premiere of Grace Williams’ Missa Cambrensis. The performance was execrable. In fact, as he explained to me, the occasion was something of a cause célèbre in the life of the composer. The work had been greatly anticipated, the composer’s only opera The Parlour having been well-received a few years earlier. Unfortunately the massed choir and Llandaff Cathedral boys’ voices proved incapable of coping with Williams’ vocal writing. To add to these woes, two of the soloists withdrew before the concert.
Grace Williams was distraught after this debacle and never returned to the work. It has, since that day, often been viewed as a forgotten masterpiece, an unjustly neglected work. Down the years I have occasionally thought about it. Even though the recording that I had listened to at the WMIC had been disappointing, in the manner of all great music badly performed the work had a way of communicating through the shortcomings. It was difficult to understand why it had never been given a second chance. That chance, happily, arrived a little over a week ago in a St. David’s Day revival of the work in Cardiff with the BBC National Orchestra and Chorus of Wales conducted by Tecwyn Evans.
The Missa is conventional in form, except in the Credo, which, in manner reminiscent of Benjamin Britten’s War Requiem, interpolates material from other sources, in this case Carol Nadolig by Saunders Lewis and The Beatitudes. The carol is performed by a boys’ choir, which also feature significantly in the Sanctus, The Beatitudes (in Welsh) by a narrator, in this case former Archbishop of Canterbury Dr. Rowan Williams. The lineup was completed by SATB soloists: Fflur Wyn, Catherine Wyn Rogers, Andrew Rees and Jason Howard.
The performance, in the second half of the concert, started unpromisingly with an announcement that bass Jason Howard was suffering from laryngitis, but had decided to brave the performance. In the end, this added only a frisson of danger; the ghost of 1971 did not return, the soloists all acquitting themselves well, even though tenor Andrew Rees occasionally struggled with some of the more vertiginously tricky passages. The BBCNOW Chorus coped magnificently with the irregular meters, sudden shifts in harmony and awkward intervals (‘the augmented this and and diminished that’ as Chorus Director Adrian Partington memorably said before the performance), the children’s chorus of Ysgol Gerdd Ceredigion provided a clear and confident contrast to the rich adult voices. BBCNOW were as reliable as ever and Rowan Williams added his inimical gravitas to the readings. One might nitpick here and there – for example I would sometimes have liked a bit more clarity in the choral singing; textures became a little muddy at times – but, it is fair to say that this time the Missa was given a performance that would not stand in the way of critical assessment of the work itself. So what of it?
I think, on balance, the expectations were completely justified. The opening phrase of the Kyrie, with its scotch snap rhythms and interjections from trumpet take you unmistakably into the sound world of the composer. It is an evocative beginning – the darkly incantatory mood befitting the text. The Kyrie, imparted three times by the choir and separated by two Christe sections for soloists, builds threateningly without being allowed to reached a climax. The Gloria is conventionally sectionalised. On first hearing my reaction was that the writing was superb, but the ideas were not interesting enough to be really compelling, a view that changed on a second listening. There is a exhilaratingly frenzied Gloria, a lyrical Laudamus Te for soloists, a metrically tricky – and very catchy – Domine Deus, a lamenting Qui Tollis with agonised woodwind lines. The brief Quoniam then provides a bridge to the Cum Sancto Spiritu, which appears to liberate the rhythms of the Domine Deus.
It is in the Credo that Williams provides her coup de théâtre. Former Director of BBCNOW Huw Tregelles Williams described before the performance that to Williams, an agnostic, the Credo was as much to do with mysticism as with the challenge of belief. After a hushed Et Incarnatus Est – a perfectly judged moment of transition – the children’s voices are introduced. The effect is astonishingly moving, even more so for being reserved for this point. The mass text then continues for moment, followed by a reminiscence of the carol material. This leads to The Beatitudes, read in Welsh with a simple instrumental accompaniment. The effect seems to emanate somewhere from the mystical past, as if we are witnessing some ancient druidic ceremony. As a Welshman abroad it made me profoundly homesick.
The following movements follow a more conventional pattern. The Sanctus arrives in a blaze of glory with the return of the scotch snap rhythms and other material from the opening Kyrie. Chorus, soloists and orchestra are set against the incantatory sounds of the children’s voices. This leads to two radiant Osannas before a reaching an ethereal close. There follows a Benedictus for choir and soloists. It is a simple and dignified movement with beautiful solo lines for woodwind. It leads directly to the more anguished Agnus Dei, the material for which again recalls the opening of the work, and a bleak Dona Nobis.
Rian Evans, in her generally positive review of the performance, did, nevertheless, called the work ‘strangely repetitive.’ I can, to a point, see what she means – my initial criticism of the piece was the extent to which the music from the opening Kyrie reappears throughout. Perhaps we have both missed the point, however. The reuse of this material is not simply repetitive, it is symphonic; it never reappears in exactly the same way. In this sense the work is a tour de force of integration and development. BBCNOW, supported by the efforts of a number of people, took quite a risk resurrecting this work. It was a triumph. One can only hope that there will be a commercial recording very soon.
The first half of this all-Williams concert also consisted of fine performances of her perennially popular Fantasia on Welsh Nursery Tunes and Trumpet Concerto played by Huw Morgan. The former is performed very often in Wales. It might be described as a ‘medley’, though that does an injustice to the cleverness with which she weaves the succession of melodies together. And its infectiously rumbustious outer sections frame, at the presentation of the melody Si hei lwli mabi, a lyrical core. The Concerto, written for Williams’ favourite instrument, is a very fine work indeed, to my mind superior to more oft-heard pieces by the likes of Arutunian and Böhme. Despite the traditional three movement pattern, the opening movement is more lyrical than energetic. As in the Missa Cambrensis it features scotch snap rhythms, as well as fanfare figures on the trumpet and an almost Mediterranean lushness to the orchestration. The central movement is a passacaglia on a 12-note idea, though the language is not serial. Elements from the first movement intrude as the funereal theme builds with powerful inevitability and impressive control. The final movement seems to reinterpret the mournful atmosphere as diabolic dance. It is marvellously exhilarating, catchy but also a little disturbing.
When I was at the WMIC all those years ago I picked up a trumpet and piano version of the Williams Trumpet Concerto. It was written in the composer’s hand, there being no engraved copy. This situation, I am happy to report, will soon be rectified with the release of a new edition by Tŷ Cerdd. The work is difficult, but definitely accessible to talented amateur players. If you are a trumpet player looking for repertoire, look no further.
You can hear this concert on BBC iPlayer for the rest of March, here.
The Bangor Music Festival (1st–6th March) begins with a St. David’s Day choral extravaganza performed by Côr Glanaethwy. The programme includes music by a number of living composers, including Karl Jenkins, Gareth Glyn, Einion Dafydd and Eric Whitacre. The vocal theme continues on 3rd with a concert by soprano Elin Manahan Thomas and on 5th with the Swingle Singers performing a selection of newly-commissioned works. On 2nd there is a concert of experimental music and theatre performed by the Bangor New Music Ensemble and The Fusion Ensemble; on 4th a programme of music by Welsh women composers; and the final day features talks, papers and a piano and electronics concert with Xenia Pestova and Electroacoustic Wales.
The London Ear Festival makes little effort to provide a narrative to its five-day festival (9th–13th), but that hardly matters given the range of interesting events on offer. There are several workshops: one each on contemporary harp, violin and percussion techniques and one in which composers are invited to bring their scores for a discussion session with Artistic Directors Gwyn Pritchard and Andrea Cavallari. The daily concerts include around thirty UK and world premieres, some of which will be first performances of works by finalists from the London Ear Festival Composers’ Competition.
In Birmingham, the Frontiers Music Festival (4th–18th) describes itself as ‘a two week frenzy of ground-breaking, window-shattering and earth-shaking new music.’ Try not to be put off by the website, which looks and navigates like a work-in-progress; what it describes sounds enticing, including works by Gavin Bryars and Errollyn Wallen and ensembles such as the Hans Koller Quartet and the Birmingham Contemporary Music Group. There will also be a focus on emerging composers Christine Cornwell, Kirsty Devaney, Anna Palmer and Emily Wright.
A nationwide event to look out for this month is CoMA’s Open Score Project. Over the last ten years it has commissioned composers to write aesthetically honest but technically accessible works for flexible ensembles. Focused largely around 4th–6th March (though there is also an event in Manchester on 27th Feb) there will be performances, workshops and a conference to promote this repertoire. The events are nationwide, so there is plenty of opportunity to get involved.
There are two major opera revivals in March. Philip Glass’s Akhnaten is the last of a trio of operas that explore the themes of science, politics and, in this case, religion. The libretto, written in Egyptian, Hebrew and Akkadian, explores the banishing of many gods in favour of one ‘sun’ god. It hasn’t been mounted in London for 30 years, The Guardian describing it as 'A once-in-a-generation chance to hear Glass’s score in the theatrical flesh.’ The plot to Gerald Barry's The Importance of Being Earnest needs no introduction. I’ve recommended it on this blog before; it is a wonderfully inventive score that won the 2013 Royal Philharmonic Society Award for best large-scale composition. The Royal Opera House production (29th–3rd April) is highly recommended.
Other world premieres to look forward to this month include, in France, on 5th: Raphaël Cendo's Radium at IRCAM in Paris (this concert also includes the French premiere of An Experiment With Time by Daniele Ghisi); works by Manfred Trojahn and Matthias Pintscher played by Ensemble Intercontemporain at the Philharmonie de Paris on 23rd; and another work by Pintscher, Three pieces for cello and piano, as part of a concert on 31st at the Aix en Provence Easter Festival that will also feature works by Pierre Boulez. UK premieres include: on 12th at the CBSO Centre, Hans Koller’s Twelve Re-inventions for George Russell, the composer being on hand for a pre-concert talk; on 13th at LSO St. Luke’s, Darren Bloom’s Dr Glaser's Experiment; Elizabeth Ogonek’s Sleep & Unremembrance at the Barbican on the same day; and a new work for soprano, piano, flute and cello by Judith Weir at Wigmore Hall on 29th. Regional premieres include, in Scotland, James Macmillan’s Little Scottish Mass at Usher Hall on 18th, and, in London, Penderecki’s La Follia for solo violin (21st), Poppe’s Speicher (10th) and John William’s Soundings (22nd).
The shenanigans at English National Opera would seem to be an obvious vindication of Micawber's advice regarding fiscal contentedness. We are entitled to ask, however: to what extent should an arts organisation be ruled by the dictates of the free market?
In his article yesterday in the Guardian, Darren Henley, Chief Executive of Arts Council England, defended their decision to remove ENO from its portfolio of 686 supported arts organisations, instead moving it to an almost exclusive ‘must try harder’ category of its own. In doing so it cut ENO’s funding from £17,470,853 to £12.38m, whilst also providing a transition grant that amounts to about £5.5m over 15/16–16/17. There is no certainty that the organisation will receive any support at all beyond 2017. The reasons he gave for this action include: that ENO has repeatedly failed to live within its budget, having been bailed-out by ACE on a number of occasions; that it has failed to innovate rapidly enough (outreach work, live streaming etc.); and that its audience levels are low.
The problem of attendance, on the face of it at least, seems clear. In 2010/11 their auditorium was 80% full; in 2011/12, 71%; 2012/13 a miserable 66%; and in 2013/14 it was 75%. Royal Opera House, whose success was trumpeted by Darren Henley, runs consistently above 90%. The question is: to what extent do such numbers matter?
With a capacity of 2359, ENO’s home, the London Coliseum, is always going to be difficult to fill. Would we, for example, be having this argument if ENO’s auditorium was half the size, with the organisation having either a) to turn punters away b) raise prices to keep numbers down c) put on more performances to cope with the demand? If we take two other major arts companies in handsome receipt of ACE funding, the National Theatre and RSC, these companies have capacities of 1150 (main auditorium) and 1040 respectively. Both receive funding at similar levels as ENO used to get: £17,217,000 for the NT: £15.447,000 for RSC. They have attendance figures in excess of 90%, which maybe isn't surprising given the venue sizes. I understand that Royal Opera House achieves its 90%+ figures on a venue size not much smaller than ENO. I suspect there are rather complicated reasons for this, however—historically ROH has had more status, more pulling-power and the ability to attract rich concertgoers that its more proletarian cousin.
In terms of ENO’s apparent failure to innovate, it is certainly true that ROH was, for example, ahead in broadcasting its performances in cinemas. Other regional companies also do excellent and laudable outreach work. I want to see ENO do more of these things too. We have, however, to ask ourselves: what is an opera company for? It is to mount performances of operas, by which I mean live opera. I, personally, am not that interested in watching an opera on a cinema screen and no amount of outreach work is going to make me feel better if the live performance I am attending is execrable. The irony is that, amidst all of this hoopla over the parlous state of ENO’s finances, it is not failing in its artistic mission (see, for example, its lauded performances Peter Grimes in 2014 Mastersingers in 2015 or the recent The Force of Destiny).
That ENO is artistically healthy makes it all the more inexcusable that cutting funding is being presented as a way of making the company more viable. In fact, the cuts are having the opposite effect. There are threats, for example, to cut the pay of the the Chorus by 25%, with many believing that this is the prelude to replacing it with part-timers. As representatives from the Chorus of ROH pointed out yesterday, it is an approach that would lead only to further financial ruin.
The third factor being used to justify cutting ENO’s funding is that it has consistently failed to live within its budget. A recent estimate puts the figure of ACE bailouts at £33m over the last 20 years. Let’s think about this for a moment. A company that is mounting one of the most expensive art forms, isn’t doing such a bad job with audience attendance and is receiving rave reviews is running over budget by an average of £1.65m per year. Let’s – just for once – also give management the benefit of the doubt; after all the brightest minds have been trying to bring down the cost of running ENO for years. Could it be that they have failed because the Arts Council have, in fact, underestimated the cost of producing live opera at the Coliseum?
My profound hope is that all is not what it seems in this Arts Council funding farce. Perhaps the real aim is to frighten ENO a little so that they make some savings and then welcome them back into the portfolio fold with a realistic level of funding. Whilst this opera buffa plays out, however, let’s pray that it doesn’t result in the destruction of one of our finest opera companies.
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