|The pianist and composer, Stephen Beville, reflects on the
wilful indifference to this Great Italian composer.
|Luigi Nono |
Nono was to my mind the greatest composer to emerge in the second half of the
20th century, and yet you will find few references to him in the standard
histories of Western music written in the English language. He has been 'persona
non grata' in Britain for decades; not only with regard to UK performances, but
similarly, amongst numerous music critics and musicologists who, I believe have
failed to grasp his importance. He is perhaps one of the least understood
composers in the English speaking world. His music is rarely programmed at UK
festivals, and with few exceptions has been omitted from intelligent discussion
in British musicology.
Surprisingly (or perhaps not so surprisingly)
this contradicts sharply with the situation on the European continent. In
Germany, Nono is increasingly regarded as the 'father of modern music', the most
important (for the musical future) and most influential member of the
avant-garde that came to prominence at Darmstadt after the Second World War. In
Germany, there are at least thirty books published, devoted to his music - music
that has yielded so much potential, and philosophical relevance for a whole new
generation of composers. In view of Nono's anti-fascist stance, a cynic might be
tempted to suggest that his music is particularly relevant to Germany in view of
its history, and for that very reason is performed there. However, Nono is
equally performed in Holland, Switzerland, Italy, France - in fact throughout
Europe. His political commitment has not alienated listeners abroad - why should
it do so in Britain?
A frequent charge against Nono is that he created
'agit-propaganda' music for a hopelessly dated cause. This simply is not true;
even the most overtly politically engaged works of Nono's middle period are
surprisingly astute for their time and should not be seen as communist
propoganda. Nono is far too complex, questioning and historically aware an
artist for that; he does not impose the comparatively simple and seductive word
setting of a composer like Hans Eisler, for example, on his listeners. With
Nono, certainty comes equally with doubt (political quotations are superimposed
with poetry and anonymous utterances, lines and instrumental groups are
refracted and decentralised to create new possibilities of listening and
absorbing philosophical engagement). That is why such a masterpiece as Al Gran
Sole carico d'amore is not so much a 'celebration' of the 1871 Paris Commune,
but a meditation and commemoration of failed revolutions (events of central
importance to 20th century history) by people, individuals, who were actively
seeking a better society. Nono does not engage so much with politics, but with
history. In addition, the kind of communism that Nono believed in was not of the
Stalinist kind (which most certainly was not communism), and it should be noted
that the ideas of Marx are still relevant today - for example, in China, or even
in Israeli kibbutz. Even if one does not share Nono's political 'convictions',
it is possible to admire this incredible music, just as it is possible for an
athiest to admire J.S Bach.
In 2004, Al Gran Sole was produced at the
Edinburgh festival, which along with Huddersfield, has been one of the few
exceptions with regards to performances of Nono's work. Earlier in 1999, a
recording of Al Gran Sole had been released by the Stuttgart Opera conducted by
Lothar Zagrosek (Teldec). It is one of the best new opera recordings of recent
times, and yet it did not even feature as an 'editor's choice' by the highly
respected British magazine, Gramophone. In fact, glancing at last years'
Gramophone Good CD Guide (and that published for 2006), one realises that Luigi
Nono is not even listed, despite several quality recordings of his work,
including his greatest achievement, Prometeo (a live performance from the
Salzburg festival, conducted by Ingo Metzmacher). There are similar omissions in
BBC publications like 'Settling the Score' (1999, Faber) - a rather too hasty
evaluation of 20th century music - or in the Encylopoedia of Music (2000,
Lorenze Books) and Al Gran Sole has not even been listed in the new Cambridge Companion to
20th Century Opera (Cooke, 2006). If one searches for 'Nono and the Proms' on the internet, we are
taken back in time to 1970, when Il Canto Sospeso was given its UK premiere. (It
was some fourteen years after its world premiere, but at least, thanks to the
initiatives of William Glock, such a milestone in modern music was performed).
Indeed, the gradual decline of radical and experimental music performed at the
Proms over the last two decades, may partly be responsible for the general
decline of interest in classical music in the UK. (The globalisation of American
culture is another undeniable factor).
The rather insular and sterile
situation right now seems to me remarkably similar to that in the 1950's
(pre-Glock), when Britain refused to acknowledge the new musical developments on
the continent, but rather pursued its own conservative agenda. Only later did we
realise how exciting the new European music really was, and what the British
public had been deprived of. The implication is that only European conductors
and orchestras have the technique, artistic seriousness and financial funding
necessary to take on Nono's major masterpieces. To our shame, Nono's Prometeo -
perhaps the greatest singular work of the 20th century - still awaits its UK
premiere, now over twenty years after its first performance in Venice. Were it
not for the initiatives of Richard Steinitz at the 1995 Huddersfield
Contemporary Music Festival, many of the late works (Fragmente-stille, La
Lontanaza, Caminantes .... Ayacucho) might similarly remain unperformed to
This wilful neglect of Nono's music suggests a
hostility not only confined to some music critics, but British conductors and
composers as well. The hostility seems to be born not only on account of the
technical difficulty of his music, but a fear that if Nono were to achieve his
due recognition and were admitted to serious musicological discourse, the change
of musical 'climate' might endanger the reputation of composers of less radical
orientation. But this need not be so, especially in our post-modern society
where musical greatness is increasingly confused with commercial appeal. In
April 2005, Oliver Knussen conducted a whole concert of Nono with the London
Sinfonietta at the Queen Elizabeth Hall. Whether the concert was at Knussen's
instigation is anyone's guess, but the hall was fully packed - in fact, I'd
never seen it so full. This seems to belie the assertion that Nono's music
drives audiences away. The occasion was a success, even if it did not include
the composer's best scores and the programme notes were far from satisfactory -
again, illustrating the problem of non-constructive Nono scholarship in Britain.
Nono's music requires careful introduction, especially to the new
listener. The most striking and immediately communicative of his works are
perhaps the most suitable - Epitaph per Frederico Garcia Lorca, Il Canto
Sospeso, La Lontananza or even Al Gran Sole. However, it does not suffice to
simply announce the works on the programme or list the facts of the composer's
life. For fuller appreciation and understanding, this requires a presentation of
Nono's thought; one must be aware of the whole cultural milieu in which the
composer was brought up (the legacy of the Second Vienese School and the Second
World War), and the cultural milieu which he immeasurably contributed to. It is
not possible to truly understand Nono without some understanding of the
philosophy of Walter Benjamin (especially his Uber den Begriff den Begriffe der
Geschichte - 'On the Concept of History'), Massimo Cacciari, or the writing of
Robert Musil. The Adorno-like call for a music incompatible with (political)
celebration and centralization has been one of Nono's very particular studies;
an argument taken further in the work of his politically conscious pupil, Helmut
Lachenmann. For Nono totally reconstructed musical language, and engaged in the
most fundamental issues with regards to its expressivity. (However, one should
not misconstrue Adorno's or even Lachenmann's views as necessarily corrosponding
The lack of fertile discussion in Britain about Nono, seems
to me a reflection of a larger inability in general, to understand music
philosophically. Perhaps this is due to a rather nebulous and neglected British
philosophical tradition, since at present, the teaching of philosophy (rather
like classical music) is, by and large, rather non-existent in our Secondary
education. However, we are over-saturated with literary traditions and literary
meaning, and are all too reluctant to accept other possible meanings outside the
written word. In Nono's Prometeo, as in many of his works, words are literally
dissolved (deconstructed) or 'translated' into pure sound; their semantic values
act as pointers to the new dimensions of meaning, realised sonically. This very
process may seem profoundly anathema to our literary tradition, and may explain
a certain discomfort on the part of many critics with regards to Nono's music.
We lack the ability to discuss music philosophically, to acknowledge new
meanings presented to us in unfamilliar ways.
Another charge against
Nono, is that his music is depressingly bleak; this seems to me another
misunderstanding. The composer does indeed confront some of the most difficult
subjects of the 20th century; Auschwitz, Vietnam, racial intolerance,
imperialism, poverty in the third-world etc. but the results are surprisingly
hopeful. Il Canto Sospeso stands not only as a profound warning, but offers
renewed hope for a better world. In Nono's music, the bleakness of the subject
is offset by the composer's dignity and idealism which comes shining through (as
in the setting of the closing lines of Canti di Vita e d'Amore or La Fabrica
illuminata) - there is some enlightenment which is gained in the listening
experience. Prometeo, subtitled 'a tragedy of listening' may be likened to
Beethoven's Ninth Symphony in its philosophical scope - a meditation on human
history and destiny - only it is a Ninth Symphony for our own age, where former
certainties about man's place in the universe have collapsed and pluralities of
thought may co-exist in a new and open synthesis. Nono's late works take their
time, or offer us a new dimension of time (and space). Even a work like Prometeo
is difficult to appreciate on first hearing, but with renewed acquaintance
offers immeasurable rewards.
Stephen Beville, 2006.
Beville is a composer and pianist, having studied with Wolfgang Rihm in
Kalrsruhe, Germany (2001-2004) on a DAAD scholarship. A number of his works
shortlisted by the SPNM, including the early Chamber Concerto (1994), Ballade
for Eight Players (1997), Purgatory for string quartet (1998) and Epicycle for
chamber orchestra (2000).
See Stephen Beville's CompositionToday Showcase site
I'm always a little worried when I read what someone says another person believed thought, as if it were fact. The simple reality is that what I am reading is what the author believes about another person, and in the case of Luigi Nono, those beliefs might just smack of a little too much certainty, for my liking.
I have big hesitations also, in describing Nono as the "father of modern music." He was certainly an explorer, but not a parental archetype, I think. (This is evidenced, for example, by the lack of any real "school" of Nonoisti writing today, nor, indeed in the past). Nono did remain something of an unique composer, but he was a divisive figure as a direct result of the political beliefs that the author above seems to wish us to ignore.
The post above was an interesting "take" on Nono, but I suspect it reveals more about the author, than the subject.
Dr Peter Kalve FRSA
Dear Sir !
Firstly, the title should really read 'Luigi Nono and the British Musical Intelligentsia' (but I do not possess 'ownership edit'). My article is not in any way an official 'entry' for the composer, nor was it intended as an introduction to his life and work (even if Composition Today and many English-language music encyclopedias require an up-to-date biography). It is written from the perspective of a composer, so it is bound to be subjective to some degree. However, you will find many of my 'claims' and insights validated by other sources.
I do not deal explicitly with Nono's politics (not because I especially oppose Communism in principle) but rather, I am trying to raise awareness, following on from my title, as to the wide-spread ignorance of his music in the UK. This ignorance I believe is primarily due to the lack of performances of his work. I therefore consider the main issues to be:
1. The lack of UK performances, especially at the BBC Proms.
2. The lack of Nono scholarship in the English language (including even references to commercial recordings in Gramophone and Penguin CD Guides).
3. The fact that Prometeo (amongst other works, including Intolleranza) has not received its UK premiere, despite performances throughout Europe, in Japan, and the USA.
Are these omissions anything to be proud of ???
In this respect, my article has elicited praise from such commentators as the contemporary-music pianist, Ian Pace and composer, Jonathan Cole.
Secondly, I was a student in Germany, in the class of Wolfgang Rihm from 2001-2004. During that time, as I recall, the two contemporary composers most discussed were Nono and Lachenmann. In response to your comment about there being no particular "school" of Nono, - well, it is a point of conjecture. His influence has been very noticeable, not only with regard to the afore-mentioned composers, but on such figures as Salvatore Sciarrino, Nicholas. A Huber, Dieter Schnebel and Heinz Holliger to name but a few. The fact that these composers are of a very different outlook and style is fully compatible with Nono's late thought; his embrace of the 'manifold ways' and 'listening to the other'. During the 1980's, Nono often referred to an inscription on the wall of a monastery in Toledo; 'there is no pathway, there is only travelling itself'. This comment, I believe to have political implications as well, and fully accords with the multi-lateral, multi-perspective qualities of his work. In addition, important new stage-pieces such as Lachenmann's Das Madchen mit den Schwefelholzern and Ferneyhough's recent opera are perhaps inconceivable without the prior example of Prometeo.
Nono's music seems to have assumed an unequivocal reverence in Germany (as verified by numerous citations in their musicology, including some 30 books on his work).
This is especially true of his late music, perhaps on account of the innovations during his Freiburg period. In the field of electro-acoustics, for example, there are currently two major schools of thought; one which considers the computer as an instrument unto itself, the other which considers it as an extension to instrumental techniques. The latter school is often attributed to Nono's influence. As far as I am aware, there is a school, or rather a tradition of Nono-performance, since so many of his pieces were conceived with the collaboration and active participation of musicians and technicians. (Someone like Andre Richard would know best about that). Perhaps an institutionalized "school" as such, would be antithetical to Nono's thinking, but there seems to me, no doubt with regard to his massive influence; hence my citation as the 'father of modern music'.
Returning to Nono's politics, as I understand (at least during the 1950's and 60's) he was very much inspired by Gramsci and his interpretation of Marxism. For Nono, politics were inseparable from life-outlook and philosophy. The philosophical dimension I consider equally important, in fact, indivisable from Nono's political and moral concerns. When I listen to a piece of music, I ask myself what does this piece tell me? It is this philosophical/humanist dimension of Nono's music that speaks most pertinently to me, even (or especially) in works like Al Gran Sole, whose very subject is politics. If I did not write at any length about politics, it is because I feel they are not didactically expressed in such music. However, I would certainly not wish the reader to 'ignore' the composer's political commitment.
The 'spectre of communism' has indeed, been an obstacle for many British writers when confronted with Nono, yet such an issue has not prevented performances of Eisler, Henze, Brecht and 'interpretations' of Neruda, Adorno, nor acceptance as to their relevance in the UK. (What I am suggesting, is perhaps the real reason Nono is not played is because the British 'establishment' have no tolerance of avant-garde music, or real artistic innovation). Wolfgang Rihm is a fervant admirer and has often written about Nono, but that does not make him necessarily want to join the Communist Party. As I suggested in my Bach analogy, it is possible to appreciate Nono from a humanist perspective. I think it time we considered his achievement as an artist (in the fullest sense of the word). It was in this sense that my article was designed; how Nono may be appreciated in new ways.
2004 was a special, commemorative year to mark the 80th anniversary of Nono's birth, and was celebrated by a whole festival of his work at the Triennial Cologne. To coincide with such celebrations, the Neue Zeitschrift fur Musik devoted an entire issue to Nono. One of the articles commented that in time, 1984 would be recalled less for Orwell's dystopian vision, but rather, for Nono's Prometeo.